CELTA Syllabus

Contents Contents . 3 Syllabus overview ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Unit descriptions ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Unit 1 Learners and teachers and the teaching and learning context ................................................ 8 Unit 2 Language analysis and awareness ............................................................................................ 10 Unit 3 Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing ........................................................ 12 Unit 4 Planning and resources for different teaching contexts ............................................................ 15 Unit 5 Developing teaching skills and professionalism ...................................................................... 17 Course requirements and components of assessment.................................................................................... 19 The two components of assessment .................................................................................................... 19 Certificate grades ............................................................................................................................... 19 Component One: Teaching practice ............................................................................................................ 20 Planning and practising teaching ........................................................................................................ 20 Component Two: Classroom-related written assignments.............................................................................. 22 Introduction Introduction Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CELTA) Target candidature The Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CELTA) is an introductory course for candidates who have little or no previous English Language teaching experience. It may also be suitable for candidates with some experience but little previous training. Course aims The course enables candidates to • acquire essential subject knowledge and familiarity with the principles of effective teaching • acquire a range of practical skills for teaching English to adult learners • demonstrate their ability to apply their learning in a real teaching context Candidates who complete the course successfully can begin working in a variety of ESOL teaching contexts around the world. Syllabus Overview This document outlines the syllabus and assessment criteria for CELTA. The following syllabus is a reflection of the pre-service entry point of prospective candidates and outlines both the subject knowledge and the pedagogic knowledge and skills required for beginner ESOL teachers. The syllabus consists of five units of learning that deal with specific topic areas in the teaching of ESOL. • Unit 1 Learners and teachers, and the teaching and learning context • Unit 2 Language analysis and awareness • Unit 3 Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing • Unit 4 Planning and resources for different teaching contexts • Unit 5 Developing teaching skills and professionalism Units 1, 4 and 5 focus on the preparation and delivery of ESOL teaching programmes. Units 2 and 3 focus on the content of ESOL teaching programmes as well as the pedagogic knowledge required for teaching language and language skills. Assessment overview CELTA is awarded to candidates who have completed the course and who have met the assessment criteria for all written and practical assignments. The overall assessment aims for each unit are that candidates should be able to: 1. assess learner needs, and plan and teach lessons which take account of learners’ backgrounds, learning preferences and current needs 2. demonstrate language knowledge and awareness and appropriate teaching strategies 3. demonstrate knowledge about language skills and how they may be acquired 4. plan and prepare lessons designed to develop their learners’ overall language competence 5. demonstrate an appropriate range of teaching skills at this level and show professional awareness and responsibility Introduction Introduction There are two components, Component One: Planning and teaching and Component Two: Classroom-related written assignments (of which there are four assignments in total). CELTA is internally assessed and externally moderated by a Cambridge ESOL approved assessor who samples portfolios and teaching practice and who discusses and agrees the grades for all candidates. Table 1 outlines the relationship of the assessment aims to the assessed work . Indicates a main assessment area . indicates secondary assessment area Table 1 Assessment grid Component One: Planning and Teaching Component Two: Classroom-related written assignments Aim Lesson Plans Teaching Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Assignment 4 1 2 3 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2 Summarises the primary assessment tasks for each unit Units Assessment 1. Learners and teachers, and the teaching and learning context 2. Language analysis and awareness 3. Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing 4. Planning and resources for different teaching contexts 5. Developing teaching skills and professionalism Planning and teaching Written assignment 1 Planning and teaching Written assignment 2 Planning and teaching Written assignment 3 Planning and teaching Written assignment 4 Planning and teaching Written assignment 4 Cambridge ESOL Teaching Awards reserves the right to request samples of any work during and up to one year after the course. Course programmes Certificate course programmes are designed by individual centres using the syllabus and course objectives. Courses will have a minimum of 120 contact hours including: • Input • Supervised lesson planning Introduction Introduction Teaching practice (six assessed hours) • Feedback on teaching • Peer observation • Observation of experienced teachers (minimum six hours) • Consultation time Candidates will need to dedicate a minimum of 80 hours for the required reading, research, pre- and post- session tasks, assignments and lesson preparation. Syllabus overview Syllabus overview UNIT 1 – LEARNERS AND TEACHERS AND THE TEACHING AND LEARNING CONTEXT 1.1 Cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds 1.2 Motivations for learning English as an adult 1.3 Learning and teaching styles 1.4 Context for learning and teaching English 1.5 Varieties of English 1.6 Multilingualism and the role of first languages UNIT 2 – LANGUAGE ANALYSIS AND AWARENESS 2.1 Basic concepts and terminology used in ELT for describing form and meaning in language and language use 2.2 Grammar – Grammatical frameworks: rules and conventions relating to words, sentences, paragraphs and texts 2.3 Lexis: What it means to “know” a word; semantic relationships between words 2.4 Phonology: The formation and description of English phonemes; features of connected speech 2.5 The practical significance of similarities and differences between languages 2.6 Reference materials for language awareness 2.7 Key strategies and approaches for developing learners’ language knowledge UNIT 3 – LANGUAGE SKILLS: READING, LISTENING, SPEAKING AND WRITING 3.1 Reading 3.1.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing reading skills 3.1.2 Purposes of reading 3.1.3 Decoding meaning 3.1.4 Potential barriers to reading 3.2 Listening 3.2.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing listening skills 3.2.2 Purposes of listening 3.2.3 Features of listening texts 3.2.4 Potential barriers to listening Syllabus overview Syllabus overview Speaking 3.3.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing speaking skills 3.3.2 Features of spoken English 3.3.3 Language functions 3.3.4 Paralinguistic features 3.3.5 Phonemic systems 3.4 Writing 3.4.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing writing skills 3.4.2 Sub-skills and features of written texts 3.4.3 Stages of teaching writing 3.4.4 Beginner literacy 3.4.5 English spelling and punctuation 3.5 Key strategies and approaches for developing learners’ receptive and productive skills UNIT 4 – PLANNING AND RESOURCES FOR DIFFERENT TEACHING CONTEXTS 4.1 Principles of planning for effective teaching of adult learners of English 4.2 Lesson planning for effective teaching of adult learners of English 4.3 Evaluation of lesson planning 4.4 The selection, adaptation and evaluation of materials and resources in planning (including computer and other technology based resources) 4.5 Knowledge of commercially produced resources and non-published materials and classroom resources for teaching English to adults UNIT 5 – DEVELOPING TEACHING SKILLS AND PROFESSIONALISM 5.1 The effective organisation of the classroom 5.2 Classroom presence and control 5.3 Teacher and learner language 5.4 The use of teaching materials and resources 5.5 Practical skills for teaching at a range of levels 5.6 The monitoring and evaluation of adult learners 5.7 Evaluation of the teaching/learning process 5.8 Professional development: responsibilities 5.9 Professional development: support systems Unit 1 – Learners and teachers and the teaching and learning context Unit 1 – Learners and teachers and the teaching and learning context Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 1.1 Cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds demonstrate an understanding of the range of backgrounds and experiences that adult learners bring to their classes 1.2 Motivations for learning English as an adult a. demonstrate an understanding of the different motivations and expectations that adults bring to learning English b. identify ways in which personal factors may affect language learning c. make practical use of this knowledge and understanding to plan and teach with sensitivity d. develop and maintain motivation, identify and respond to expectations a. demonstrate an awareness of the different learning styles and preferences that adults bring to learning English b. demonstrate an awareness of the different roles teachers may adopt at different stages of teaching and in different teaching/learning contexts c. make practical use of this awareness in planning and teaching a. understand in broad terms the context in which teaching is taking place with special reference to the learners, the physical surroundings and the availability of resources b. understand the broad range of learning needs including the needs of learners with learning difficulties and/or disabilities c. make practical use of this understanding in adapting teaching to contexts and learners’ needs a. understand the main ways that varieties of English differ from one another b. demonstrate awareness of the need for teachers and learners to make informed choices about language models for teaching and learning c. make practical use of this knowledge and awareness in planning and teaching 1.3 Learning and teaching styles 1.4 Context for learning and teaching English 1.5 Varieties of English 1.6 Multilingualism and the role of first languages demonstrate an understanding of the kinds of language backgrounds that learners may come from (e.g. multilingual/monolingual; standard/non-standard) and how a learner’s language background might influence the learning of English Teaching practice: planning and teaching Assignment: Focus on the learner Unit 1 – Learners and teachers and the teaching and learning context Unit 1 – Learners and teachers and the teaching and learning context KEY ASSIGNMENT See Focus on the learner on page 22 KEY TEACHING PRACTICE CRITERIA See page 20 for criterion 4a and page 21 for criteria 1a–c. Unit 2 – Language analysis and awareness Unit 2 – Language analysis and awareness Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 2.1 Basic concepts and terminology used in ELT to discuss language form and use understand key terminology used in ELT to talk about language and apply this terminology to planning and teaching 2.2 Grammar Rules and conventions relating to words, sentences, paragraphs and texts Formation and usage of grammatical features relating to the noun phrase and verb phrase a. demonstrate understanding of a range of the rules and conventions relating to words, sentences, paragraphs and texts b. demonstrate a basic working knowledge of how the verb phrase and the noun phrase are formed and used in English, for example: tense and aspect voice modality including the expression of hypothetical meaning finite and non-finite forms the adverbial element countability a. demonstrate familiarity with basic principles of word formation and lexical meaning for example: meaning and definition pronunciation spelling affixation and compounding synonomy and hyponymy b. demonstrate understanding of the effect on word choice of factors such as co-text (e.g. collocation) context of situation (style) a. demonstrate a working knowledge of the sounds of English b. demonstrate understanding of some features of connected speech. For example: linking assimilation and elision word and sentence stress intonation patterns 2.3 Lexis Word formation, meaning and use in context 2.4 Phonology The formation and description of English phonemes Features of connected speech Assignment: Language related tasks Language analysis for teaching Assignment: Language related tasks Language analysis for teaching Assignment: Language related tasks Language analysis for teaching Unit 2 – Language analysis and awareness Unit 2 – Language analysis and awareness Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 2.5 The practical significance of similarities and differences between languages identify some significant differences between their own language and a foreign language and demonstrate in practice their understanding of the relevance of some of these differences for the teacher and learner 2.6 Reference materials for language awareness use a range of reference material to analyse and describe language for teaching purposes 2.7 Key strategies and approaches for developing learners’ language knowledge use a limited range of strategies, approaches and techniques to develop learners’ language knowledge e.g inductive and deductive presentations Assignment: Focus on the learner Assignment: Language related tasks Teaching practice Unit 2 Assessment KEY ASSIGNMENT See Language related tasks on page 23 KEY TEACHING PRACTICE CRITERIA See pages 20 and 21 for criteria 4a–c, 4i–k and 2a–2g. Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 3.1 Reading 3.1.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing reading skills demonstrate an awareness of basic concepts and terminology used for describing reading skills, and apply this to planning and teaching 3.1.2 Purposes of reading demonstrate an awareness of how approaches to reading texts vary depending on the purpose of reading, and make practical use of this in teaching 3.1.3 Decoding meaning identify some of the features which help learners decode meanings of words, sentences and whole texts, and make practical use of this in teaching 3.1.4 Potential barriers to reading a. identify some of the difficulties learners may face when trying to understand texts b. identify ways of making reading texts more intelligible to learners 3.2 Listening 3.2.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing listening skills demonstrate an awareness of basic concepts and terminology used for describing listening skills, and apply this to practical teaching 3.2.2 Purposes of listening demonstrate an awareness of how approaches to listening texts vary depending on the purpose of listening, and make practical use of this in teaching 3.2.3 Features of listening texts a. identify some of the features which indicate the purpose of utterances and listening texts and which help convey meaning b. make practical use of this knowledge and awareness in teaching 3.2.4 Potential barriers to listening a. identify some of the difficulties learners face when listening b. demonstrate ways of helping learners understand listening texts and improve their listening skills Teaching practice: planning and teaching lessons to develop reading skills Assignment: Language skills related tasks Teaching practice: planning and teaching lessons to develop listening skills Assignment: Language skills related tasks Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 3.3 Speaking Teaching practice: planning and teaching lessons to develop speaking skills 3.3.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing speaking skills demonstrate an awareness of basic concepts and terminology used for describing speaking skills, and apply this to practical teaching 3.3.2 Features of spoken English a. identify some key features of spoken English b. identify some ways in which spoken English differs from written English c. make practical use of this knowledge and awareness in planning and teaching 3.3.3 Language functions a. identify a wide range of language functions and the forms used to express them b. apply knowledge of language functions to planning and teaching 3.3.4 Paralinguistic features demonstrate awareness of the role of paralinguistic features (e.g gesture, gaze) in communication Assignment: Focus on the learner 3.3.5 Phonemic systems identify and describe some differences in phonemic systems of languages spoken by learners 3.4 Writing Teaching practice: planning and teaching lessons/ parts of lessons to develop writing skills Assignment: Focus on the learner 3.4.1 Basic concepts and terminology used for describing writing skills demonstrate an awareness of basic concepts and terminology used for describing writing skills, and apply this to practical teaching 3.4.2 Sub-skills and features of written texts a. identify some of the sub-skills of writing b. identify some features of written texts 3.4.3 Stages of teaching writing a. identify the stages of producing written text b. make practical use of knowledge about writing sub-skills, features of written language and stages of producing written text in planning and teaching 3.4.4 Beginner literacy a. demonstrate awareness of some issues relating to beginner literacy b. apply awareness of beginner literacy issues to practical teaching situations Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Unit 3 – Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 3.4.5 English spelling and punctuation a. identify some English spelling patterns and some strategies to help learners develop their spelling skills b. identify some ways in which punctuation contributes to meaning in written text c. apply a basic understanding of English spelling and punctuation to practical teaching 3.5 Key strategies and approaches for developing learners’ receptive and productive skills use a limited range of strategies, approaches and techniques to develop learners’ receptive and productive skills Teaching practice Assignment: Focus on the learner Teaching practice Unit 3 Assessment KEY ASSIGNMENT See Language skills related tasks on page 23 KEY TEACHING PRACTICE CRITERIA See pages 20 and 21 for criteria 4a–c and 4l, and page 21 for 3a–3c. Unit 4 – Planning and resources for different teaching contexts Unit 4 – Planning and resources for different teaching contexts Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 4.1 Principles of planning for effective teaching of adult learners of English a. b. a. b. c. a. b. understand the purpose and principles of planning for effective teaching of adult learners distinguish between different kinds of teaching and different kinds of lessons and select the kinds of lessons that are most appropriate for particular learners demonstrate the ability to plan logically sequenced lessons that are appropriate to the needs of the learners devise lesson plans which include: i. a statement of aims ii. a class profile iii. anticipation of difficulties and suggested solutions iv. description of teacher and learner interactions v. details of resources to be used vi. staged description of procedures including anticipated timings relate, where appropriate, the learners’ language needs to learning in other areas, showing awareness of the broader educational context in which the teaching/ learning of English is situated evaluate their own lesson preparation before and after teaching through reflection and by taking note of comments from tutors, colleagues and learners take account of this evaluation in planning future lessons 4.2 Lesson planning for effective teaching of adult learners of English 4.3 Evaluation of lesson planning 4.4 The selection, adaptation and evaluation of materials and resources in planning (including computer and other technology based resources) a. b. select and evaluate materials and resources (including computer and other technology based resources) understand the need for and begin to put into practice with due regard for the provisions of copyright, the adaptation of resources and materials to meet the requirements of specific groups of adult learners Lesson planning Teaching practice Assignment: Lessons from the classroom Unit 4 – Planning and resources for different teaching contexts Unit 4 – Planning and resources for different teaching contexts Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: Unit 4 Assessment KEY ASSIGNMENT See Lessons from the classroom on page 23 KEY TEACHING PRACTICE CRITERIA See pages 20 and 21 for criteria 4a–n. Unit 5 – Developing teaching skills and professionalism Unit 5 – Developing teaching skills and professionalism Ref Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 5.1 The effective organisation of the classroom a. arrange the physical features of the classroom to suit the learners and the type of lesson, and ensure safety regulations are taken into account b. set up and manage whole class work, pair and group work and individual work as appropriate 5.2 Classroom presence and control establish and maintain a good rapport with learners at all times and foster a constructive learning atmosphere 5.3 Teacher and learner language a. use their own English Language skills to enhance the effectiveness of their teaching b. adjust their own use of language to the level of the class c. give clear instructions d. choose appropriate moments, and appropriate strategies for correcting learners’ language 5.4 The use of teaching materials and resources a. make appropriate use of a range of materials and resources in relation to specified aims b. understand the implications of teaching with limited resources 5.5 Practical skills for teaching at a range of levels a. work successfully with learners at different levels, using appropriate types of classroom activity to develop learners’ language and skills b. involve learners of different ability levels in the work of the class and enable them to feel a sense of progress 5.6 The monitoring and evaluation of adult learners a. demonstrate the ability to monitor learner behaviours in class time and to respond appropriately b. incorporate into their lessons some basic assessment procedures c. make planning decisions on the basis of assessment Teaching practice Unit 5 – Developing teaching skills and professionalism Unit 5 – Developing teaching skills and professionalism Syllabus content Learning outcomes Assessment Successful candidates can: 5.7 Evaluation of the teaching/learning process 5.8 Professional development: responsibilities 5.9 Professional development: support systems a. demonstrate the ability to make balanced and constructive self-appraisal of their own teaching b. respond appropriately to feedback from tutors, peers and learners c. assess their own strengths and development needs, make practical use of that assessment and set goals and targets for future development d. make constructive appraisals of the lessons of their colleagues a. demonstrate professional responsibility by following any institutional code(s) of practice and implementing institutional requirements including Teaching practice i. health and safety procedures, Assignment: Lessons from the ii. equal opportunities policies, iii. record keeping and time-keeping requirements classroom b. understand the limits of their responsibility with regard to the welfare, health, safety and supervision of learners and know when to assume responsibility themselves or refer responsibility, ensuring that it has been assumed by someone else In recognition of the initial nature and scope of their training so far, respond appropriately to relevant aspects of professional development by finding out about opportunities for further professional development in teaching English to adults, including appropriate professional associations magazines journals and publications for teachers entering the field of teaching English Language to adults Unit 5 Assessment KEY ASSIGNMENT See Lessons from the classroom on page 23 KEY TEACHING PRACTICE CRITERIA See pages 21 and 22 for criteria 5a–n. Course requirements and components of assessment Course requirements and components of assessment Assessment requirements To meet the assessment requirements, candidates are required to attend a course and to: • practice teach classes of the relevant age group and size for a total of six hours • observe experienced teachers teaching classes of adult learners for a total of six hours, two of which may be on video • maintain and submit a portfolio of all course work including all written assignments and materials related to teaching practice. Mode of assessment Assessment is continuous and integrated. continuous here means that • assessment takes place throughout the course. integrated here means that • both assessed components contribute to the overall grade. The two components of assessment Component One: Planning and teaching In this component, candidates are required to practice teach for a total of six assessed hours, working with adult learners at a minimum of two levels in classes of the required size. (Please refer to the Administration Handbook for regulations regarding Teaching Practice.) By the end of the six hours of assessed teaching practice, candidates should have demonstrated successful achievement of all the teaching practice assessment criteria, detailed on pages 20–22. Component Two: Classroom-related written assignments This component consists of four written assignments: • one assignment focuses on adult learners and learning contexts • one assignment focuses on an aspect of the language system of English • one assignment focuses on an aspect of language skills • one assignment requires reflection on classroom teaching and the identification of action points The centre is responsible for designing the written assignments, which should each be between 750 and 1,000 words. The assignments are internally assessed and externally moderated. Two assignments may be conflated into one larger assignment provided that all the assessment criteria are met. Certificate grades The Certificate will be awarded to candidates who meet the course requirements and whose performance meets, or exceeds, the criteria in both assessment components. Candidates are ineligible for the award in cases where dishonesty or plagiarism is brought to the attention of Cambridge ESOL Teaching Awards. Course requirements and components of assessment Course requirements and components of assessment They will continue to need guidance to help them to develop and broaden their range of skills as teachers in post. A Pass (Grade B) is awarded to candidates whose performance in the written assignments meets the specified criteria and who have demonstrated in their teaching practice a level of achievement significantly higher than that required to meet pass-level criteria in relation to: • demonstration of the criteria for teaching skills and professionalism (criteria 1a – 3c and 5a – 5n). They will continue to need some guidance to help them to develop and broaden their range of skills as teachers in post. A Pass (Grade A) is awarded to candidates whose performance in the written assignments meets the specified criteria and who have demonstrated in their teaching practice a level of ability and achievement and a level of awareness significantly higher than that required to meet pass-level criteria in relation to: • planning for effective teaching • teaching skills and professionalism They will benefit from further guidance in post but will be able to work independently. Candidates who fail to meet criteria in any or all assessed components will receive a Fail. Component One: Teaching practice Centres are responsible for including six hours supervised and assessed teaching practice as part of the programme. This teaching practice will typically involve candidates working with specially arranged groups of learners. In some colleges, candidates may be placed as an apprentice with a class teacher and work alongside the class teacher in a supervised role. The teaching practice is time-tabled on a continuous basis throughout the course so that opportunities are provided for candidates to show that they can apply theory to practice in classroom teaching. In their teaching and in their lesson plans, candidates should demonstrate an increasing ability in their achievement of the assessment criteria which are detailed on pages 20–22. By the end of the course, candidates should be able to plan, prepare and teach a range of lessons designed for adult learners of English. The programme for the six hours assessed teaching practice should provide each candidate with opportunities to teach for at least two hours at two different levels, one of which should be below intermediate level. The number of occasions on which candidates should practice teach and the length of the assessed lessons are not specified, but on a minimum of two occasions, opportunities to practice teach for at least 40 minutes should be provided. Opportunities for candidates to teach a broad range of lesson types should also be included. The overall scope and assessment criteria for teaching practice are described below. Please note that in order to show how the assessment criteria are linked to the syllabus, each criterion is introduced by a number that refers to a corresponding Unit of the syllabus. Planning and practising teaching By the end of the six hours’ assessed teaching practice, successful candidates at pass level should show convincingly and consistently that they can: • prepare and plan for the effective teaching of adult ESOL learners by: 4a identifying and stating appropriate aims/outcomes for individual lessons 4b ordering activities so that they achieve lesson aims/outcomes Course requirements and components of assessment Course requirements and components of assessment requirements 4e describing the procedure of the lesson in sufficient detail 4f including interaction patterns appropriate for the materials and activities used in the lesson 4g ensuring balance, variety and a communicative focus in materials, tasks and activities 4h allocating appropriate timing for different stages in the lessons 4i analysing language with attention to form, meaning and phonology and using correct terminology 4j anticipating potential difficulties with language, materials and learners 4k suggesting solutions to anticipated problems 4l using terminology that relates to language skills and sub-skills correctly 4m working constructively with colleagues in the planning of teaching practice sessions 4n reflecting on and evaluating their plans in light of the learning process and suggesting improvements for future plans. • demonstrate professional competence as teachers by: 1a teaching a class with an awareness of the needs and interests of the learner group 1b teaching a class with an awareness of learning styles and cultural factors that may affect learning 1c acknowledging, when necessary, learners’ backgrounds and previous learning experiences 1d establishing good rapport with learners and ensuring they are fully involved in learning activities 2a adjusting their own use of language in the classroom according to the learner group and the context 2b identifying errors and sensitively correcting learners’ oral and written language 2c providing clear contexts and a communicative focus for language 2d providing accurate and appropriate models of oral and written language in the classroom 2e focusing on language items in the classroom by clarifying relevant aspects of meaning and form (including phonology) for learners to an appropriate degree of depth 2f showing awareness of differences in register 2g providing appropriate practice of language items 3a helping learners to understand reading and listening texts 3b helping learners to develop oral fluency 3c helping learners to develop writing skills 5a arranging the physical features of the classroom appropriately for teaching and learning, bearing in mind safety regulations of the institution 5b setting up whole class and/or group or individual activities appropriate to the lesson type 5c selecting appropriate teaching techniques in relation to the content of the lesson 5d managing the learning process in such a way that lesson aims are achieved 5e making use of materials, resources and technical aids in such a way that they enhance learning 5f using appropriate means to make instructions for tasks and activities clear to learners 5g using a range of questions effectively for the purpose of elicitation and checking of understanding 5h providing learners with appropriate feedback on tasks and activities 5i maintaining an appropriate learning pace in relation to materials, tasks and activities 5j monitoring learners appropriately in relation to the task or activity Course requirements and components of assessment Course requirements and components of assessment Component Two: Classroom-related written assignments Centres are responsible for designing four written assignments which relate directly to the course programme. The scope and assessment criteria for each written assignment are described below and on page 23. Each assignment should be between 750 and 1,000 words. A variety of formats may be used but two of the assignments must be written in academic prose. Assignments may consist of a series of tasks. It is also possible for centres to conflate two assignments into one longer assignment with two discrete parts; in this case, the assignment is still assessed as two separate pieces of work and each section of the assignment must be graded separately. Assignment 2.1 Focus on the learner The design of the assignment to include: Candidates can demonstrate their learning by: Length 750–1,000 words • investigation of the learning context and assessment of learner needs with reference to a specific learner or group of learners • identification of sources for language development and, where appropriate, personal support • suggestions for specific language/skill focussed activities and an explanation/rationale for the use of these activities with the specific learners outlined a. showing awareness of how a learner’s/learners’ background(s), previous learning experience and learning style(s) affect learning b. identifying the learner’s/learners’ language/skills needs c. correctly using terminology relating to the description of language systems and language skills d. selecting appropriate material and/or resources to aid the learner’s/learners’ language development e. providing a rationale for using specific activities with a learner/learners f. finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task Course requirements and components of assessment Course requirements and components of assessment The design of the assignment to include: Candidates can demonstrate their learning by: Length 750–1,000 words • identification of significant features of the form, phonology, meaning and use of language items/areas and the use of relevant information from reference materials a. analysing language correctly for teaching purposes b. correctly using terminology relating to form, meaning and phonology when analysing language c. accessing reference materials and referencing information they have learned about language to an appropriate source d. using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task Assignment 2.3 Language skills related tasks The design of the assignment to include: Candidates can demonstrate their learning by: Length 750–1,000 words • evidence of the candidate's background reading in the topic area • identification of the receptive language skills and/or sub-skills that could be practised and developed using course book material or authentic text • identification of productive language skills that could be practised and developed in relation to that text • task design in relation to the text with brief rationale a. correctly using terminology that relates to language skills and sub-skills b. relating task design to language skills development c. finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task Assignment 2.4 Lessons from the classroom The design of the assignment to include: Candidates can demonstrate their learning by: Length 750–1,000 words • candidates' identification of their own teaching strengths and development needs • reflections on their own teaching • reflections on the implications for their own teaching from the observations of experienced ELT professionals and colleagues on the course a. noting their own teaching strengths and weaknesses in different situations in light of feedback from learners, teachers and teacher educators b. identifying which ELT areas of knowledge and skills they need further development in c. describing in a specific way how they might develop their ELT knowledge and skills beyond the course d. using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task